Welcome to The Yocum Library of Reading Area Community College's Blog!

For many years we have published a print newsletter for the RACC community that provided information on the library's staff, resources, and services. In order to provide information on a more timely basis, we decided to switch to the blog format. We hope that you enjoy learning more about The Yocum Library of RACC.

Monday, October 31, 2011

Word of the Day

*Word of the Day for Monday, October 31, 2011

nyctophobia \nik-tuh-FOH-bee-uh\, noun:

An abnormal fear of night or darkness.

Hardly right for him to do that if you're here by yourself, Miss Laetitia—all alone with your nyctophobia—but if Miss Templeton were here as well, you could all chaperone one another.
-- Barbara Cleverly, A Darker God
For as long as she could remember, Jerry Gates had been terrified of the dark. The cause of this nyctophobia was beyond the reach of recollection: some early trauma at the top of the stairs, perhaps.
-- Christopher Fowler, Seventy-Seven Clocks
Nyctophobia stems from the Greek nyktos- meaning night and phobia meaning fear.

Scheduled Classes for Computers

2 p.m. - 3 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum instruction area
Description: Mr. Walentis COM121 (20) No instruction, reserve 12 computers

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : Which multinational company has run advertising campaigns called 'All the Colours of the World' and 'HIV Positive'? (from A Dictionary of Modern Design)

Benetton (established 1966) By the early 21st century the Italian multinational company Benetton had become one of the largest retailers in the world with outlets in more than 120 countries.

The company markets four different brand identities: United Colours of Benetton casual wear for the family; Sisley for older consumers; 012 baby and toddler clothing; and Playlife sportswear. Within a dozen years of its establishment this clothing manufacturing company, founded near Venice by Luciano Benetton, commenced its programme of international expansion.

This was helped by the standardization of the company's retail outlets, which were designed in such a way as to show off Benetton products in an alluring manner. Benetton was quick to utilize computing systems in the automation of its operating processes, both in the manufacture of clothing and in the monitoring of stocks and sales. As such, the company was an early exponent of the Just in Time production and distribution system, a philosophy that a number of progressive manufacturer‐retailers adopted in the late 20th century.

In northern Italy in the early 1990s Benetton built two new factories that utilized advanced computing technology in the linking of production controls with an efficient ordering and distribution system. Benetton became widely known for its dramatic, and often controversial, advertising campaigns directed by the fashion photographer Oliviero Toscani. These centred on themes such as ‘All the Colours of the World’ (1984), ‘United Colours of Benetton’ (1990), and ‘HIV Positive’ (1992). The company also captured tremendous publicity through its involvement in Formula 1 motor racing, televised throughout the world.


How to cite this entry:
"Benetton" A Dictionary of Modern Design. Jonathan Woodham. Oxford University Press, 2004. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 31 October 2011

Sunday, October 30, 2011

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Word of the Day

*Word of the Day Sunday, October 30, 2011

thanatopsis
\than-uh-TOP-sis\ , noun;
1.
A view or contemplation of death.
2.
A poem (1817) by William Cullen Bryant.

Quotes:
Once upon a time not too long ago I was married to a young woman whose every waking moment was underlain by a preoccupation with thanatopsis.
-- Harlan Ellison, Edgeworks

Yet, having heard Khideo's playful thanatopsis—he meant it to be playful—Ilihi looked at him with strange concern. “You sound as if you long for death, but I know it's not true.” said Ilihi.
-- Orson Scott Card, Earthborn

Origin:
Thanatopsis was first used in English by poet William Cullen Bryant in his 1817 poem. The word literally comes from the Greek thanato- meaning death and -opsis meaning likeness or idea.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : In philosophy what is the Euthyphro dilemma? (from The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy)


Euthyphro dilemma The dilemma explored in Plato's dialogue Euthyphro. Are pious things pious because the gods love them, or do the gods love them because they are pious? The dilemma poses the question of whether value can be conceived as the upshot of the choice of any mind, even a divine one. On the first option the choice of the gods creates goodness and value. Even if this is intelligible it seems to make it impossible to praise the gods, for it is then vacuously true that they choose the good.

On the second option we have to understand a source of value lying behind or beyond the will even of the gods, and by which they can be evaluated. The elegant solution of Aquinas is that the standard is formed by God's nature, and is therefore distinct from his will, but not distinct from him.

The dilemma arises whatever the source of authority is supposed to be. Do we care about the good because it is good, or do we just call good those things that we care about? It also generalizes to affect our understanding of the authority of other things: mathematics, or necessary truth, for example. Are truths necessary because we deem them to be so, or do we deem them to be so because they are necessary?


How to cite this entry:
"Euthyphro dilemma" The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. Simon Blackburn. Oxford University Press, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 30 October 2011

Saturday, October 29, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

9 a.m. - 10 a.m Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Mrs. Moyer ORI102 (24) Intro to Library PowerPoint presented by
Ms. Maryann Kruglinski

Reserved Group Study Rooms

11 a.m. - 2 p.m. Yocum 103 reserved
Where: Yocum 103
Description: Study Group with Karen Bowers and other Chemistry students

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : What was the aim of the Poujadism movement in France (1953)? (from The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics)


Poujadism A French movement (UDCA) created by Pierre Poujade after 1953 , mobilizing the lower middle classes, shopkeepers and artisans, and the peasantry in the south, in opposition to big business and the unions, the state and the administration, but mainly to taxes.

Right‐wing and populist , but also republican, the Poujadists exploited widespread discontent with the Fourth Republic, winning over two‐ and‐a‐half million votes in the 1956 election and returning fifty‐three deputies. Within two years, lacking leadership and a programme, the movement collapsed.

IC

How to cite this entry:
IC "Poujadism" The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 29 October 2011

Friday, October 28, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

8 a.m. - 9 a.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Lawlor ORI102 (27) Intro to Library PP presented by
Ms. Brenna Corbit.

Reserved Group Study Rooms

12 p.m. - 3 p.m. Tower Room reserved
Where: Tower Room
Description: Study Group with Samantha Rambo, Kery Yoder, Antoine Lewis,
Ricardo Rimpel.

12 p.m. - 3 p.m. Yocum 103 Reserved
Where: Yocum 103
Description: Study Group with Gina Aldi, Trisha Lasher & Steve Iluliano

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : What was the Daily Telegraph Affair (28 October 1908)? (from A Dictionary of Contemporary World History )

Daily Telegraph Affair On 28 October 1908 an interview appeared in the British newspaper Daily Telegraph in which the German Emperor Wilhelm II mourned that he was the only anglophile German, and claimed that during the South African (Boer) War he had not only prevented a continental alliance against England, but that English victory was achieved on the basis of battle plans which he himself had drawn up for his grandmother Queen Victoria.

This claim caused an uproar in Britain, while in Germany it raised serious constitutional questions about the role of the Emperor in German politics, especially his meddling in current affairs. While the German parliament's censure of the Emperor demonstrated its increased self‐confidence, its failure to press home this advantage to limit the Emperor's political rights also revealed its continued weakness in the Empire's constitutional system.


How to cite this entry:
"Daily Telegraph Affair" A Dictionary of Contemporary World History. Jan Palmowski. Oxford University Press, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 28 October 2011

Thursday, October 27, 2011

Word of the Day

Word of the Day for Thursday, October 27, 2011

perdition \per-DISH-uhn\, noun:

1. A state of final spiritual ruin; loss of the soul; damnation.
2. The future state of the wicked.
3. Hell.
4. Utter destruction or ruin.
5. Obsolete. Loss.

So my suspicions are confirmed, then, and you have determined to hand over your son to eternal perdition.
-- Henry Kingsley, Ravenshoe, Volume 1
I will rescue you from perdition in spite of yourself; Penance and mortification shall expiate your offense, and Severity force you back to the paths of holiness.
-- Matthew Lewis, The Monk

Perdition stems from the Latin perditiōn- meaning destruction. It was the equivalent of perdit, the past participle of perdere meaning to do in, ruin or lose.

Scheduled Classes for Computers

10:15 a.m. - 11:15 a.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Mr. Bostic Intermediate ESL (30) Intro to Yocum Library PowerPoint presnted by Ms. Brenna Corbit.

2 p.m. - 3:30 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Essig COM061 (20) Reserve the 12 instruction computers
without library staff instruction.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : In which year did the Big Bang take place on the London Stock Exchange? (from A Dictionary of Accounting)

Big Bang The upheaval on the London Stock Exchange (LSE) when major changes in operation were introduced on 27 October 1986. The major changes enacted on that date were: (a) the abolition of LSE rules enforcing a rigid distinction between jobbers and brokers; (b) the abolition of fixed commission rates charged by stockbrokers to their clients. The measures were introduced by the LSE in return for an undertaking by the government (given in 1983) that they would not prosecute the LSE under the Restrictive Practices Act. The term is sometimes used more generally to mean the globalization and modernization of the London securities market at this time.


How to cite this entry:
"Big Bang" A Dictionary of Accounting. Ed Jonathan Law and Gary Owen. Oxford University Press, 2010. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 27 October 2011

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

Word of the Day

*Word of the Day for Wednesday, October 26, 2011

animadvert \an-uh-mad-VURT\, verb:

1. To comment unfavorably or critically.
2. Obsolete. To take cognizance or notice of.

I have a proposition which I am desirous of making to Mr. Gilmore, as a magistrate acting in this part of the county. Of course, it is not for me to animadvert upon what the magistrates may do at the bench tomrorrow.
-- Anthony Trollope, The Vicar of Bullhamptom

It is not our business to animadvert upon these lines; we are not critics, but historians.
-- Andrew Lang, The Blue Fairy Book

Animadvert comes from the Latin animadvertere meaning to heed or censure.
*http://dictionary.reference.com/wordoftheday/

Scheduled Classes for Computers

3:30 p.m. - 4:45 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Lawlor ORI102 (25) Intro to Library PP presented by
Ms. Patricia Nouhra

Reserved Group Study Rooms

12 p.m. - 3 p.m. Tower Room reserved
Where: Tower Room
Description: Study Group with Samantha Rambo, Kery Yoder, Antoine Lewis, Ricardo
Rimpel.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : How many lives were lost in the sinking of the Lusitania? (from The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea)

Lusitania, an ocean liner of just under 31,000 gross tonnage which belonged to the Cunard Line. Built in 1906, she had quadruple propellers, and the following year won the Atlantic blue riband by crossing from Liverpool to New York at an average speed of 23.99 knots. She continued monthly sailings from Liverpool to New York and back after the outbreak of war in 1914.

Before she left New York on 1 May 1915 the German authorities in the USA published warnings that she would be attacked by submarines, and advised passengers not to sail. The warnings were not regarded as serious, and it appears that warnings of German submarine activity in the area were not signalled to her by the British Admiralty.

On 6 May 1915 she approached southern Ireland. According to her sailing orders she should have been steering a zigzag course and had been instructed to keep away from landfalls, but these instructions were ignored and she approached the Old Head of Kinsale on a steady course at a speed of 21 knots when at about 1415 on 7 May a torpedo struck her starboard side, fired from the German submarine U.20, the explosion of the torpedo being shortly followed by a second.

Great loss of life was caused by the rapidity with which she sank—she went under in twenty minutes—and because she was listing so heavily, and was at so steep an angle bows-down when she sank, that it was difficult to get her lifeboats away. Out of the 1,959 passengers and crew aboard, 1,198 were drowned, including over 100 American citizens.

President Theodore Roosevelt called the sinking piracy ‘on a vaster scale than the worst pirates of history’. At the time the Germans claimed, quite wrongly, she was an armed merchant cruiser carrying troops from Canada. When the USA declared war on Germany in 1917 the latter's submarine warfare was given as one of the reasons for the declaration.

The ship was sunk in 90 metres (295 ft) of water and was first visited by a diver in 1935 after she had been located by echo sounder, and in the 1960s an American diver bought her remains from the British government. Over a period of time he tried to establish what exactly had sunk her, but was unable to do so. Then with the advance in diving technology, the ship's remains were explored properly in 1982 and a number of artefacts were brought to the surface as well as hundreds of military fuses.

This appeared to verify suspicions that she had been illegally carrying military explosives, and that this had caused the second explosion. However, an expedition led by Dr Robert Ballard in 1993 found no proof that this was what had sunk her. She is now protected by the Irish government.
Ballard, R., Exploring the Lusitania (1995).
Ramsay, D., Lusitania: Saga and Myth (2001).



How to cite this entry:
"Lusitania" The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. Ed. I. C. B. Dear and Peter Kemp. Oxford University Press, 2007. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 26 October 2011

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Word of the Day

Word of the Day for Tuesday, October 25, 2011

mesmerize \MEZ-muh-rahyz\, verb:

1. To spellbind; fascinate.
2. To hypnotize.
3. To compel by fascination.

What a joy it was to mesmerize his audience, delight them, sell them the medicine, trick them.
-- Jeffery Deaver, The Vanished Man

“This gentleman," said Fraisier, darting at Schmucke one of those poisonous glances wherewith he was wont to mesmerize his victims, just as a spider mesmerizes a fly...
-- Honoré de Balzac, The Human Comedy

Mesmerize is an eponym from Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), an Austrian physician who developed a theory of animal magnetism and a mysterious body fluid which allows one person to hypnotize another.

Book Review: "Calamity Jane : the woman and the legend" in the Yocum Collection


Calamity Jane : the woman and the legend / James D. McLaird.
Call number: F594.C2 M34 2005

Calamity Jane
by James D. Mclaird




The Real Calamity Jane
A review by Margot Mifflin

As author James D. McLaird confesses in his conclusion to Calamity Jane: The Woman and the Legend, historians sure know how to ruin a good story. In this case, somebody had to do it. Calamity Jane -- 19th century gunslinger, drinker and cross-dresser -- was so barnacled over with myth that it had become impossible to see the lady for the lore. From dime-store novels of the 1870s and '80s chronicling her frontier fearlessness, to Doris Day's G-rated Jane in the 1953 musical Calamity Jane, to Jane Alexander's feminist reanimation of her in a 1984 ABC special, to Robin Weigert's blowsy portrayal of her on the HBO series Deadwood, Calamity Jane has served as a Rorschach blot for devotees of unconventional women for over a century. Then again there was Larry McMurtry's Buffalo Girls -- published in 1990 -- which trashed the myth altogether, casting her as a drunk, a liar and a hermaphrodite.

Love her or hate her, you probably don't know her at all. Nee Martha Canary, she was less -- and more -- than she's cracked up to be: She was a cook and a laundress, a dance hall girl and a prostitute, an abject alcoholic and a devoted nurse, an abused wife and a mother who said of her daughter, Jessie, "She's all I've got to live fer; she's my only comfort." She knew Wild Bill Hickok, who was newly married, for a mere six weeks before he was shot down in Deadwood, S.D. Legend has it -- wrongly -- that they were lovers. And let the record show: Though she sometimes donned men's clothes, Canary typically wore a dress.

In Calamity Jane: The Woman and the Legend, McLaird, a professor emeritus at Dakota Wesleyan University, sets out to correct the errors that plague Canary scholarship and, more significantly, to explain how her life was recast to fulfill a romantic vision of frontier life. Some of the tall tales about her spring from dime novels in which she was written into fabricated exploits; others were plucked from her own falsified autobiography ("I was considered the most reckless and daring rider and one of the best shots in the western country…"). But weirdly enough, a major source of misinformation about her came from her impostor daughter, Jean McCormick, who popped up in 1941 with a forged memoir, itself spun from popular fictions, that crystallized Canary's myth and went unquestioned for decades. McCormick claimed her parents were Calamity Jane and Wild Bill Hickok, and because so little research had been done on Canary, the forgery, which McLaird debunks in a few deft and convincing strokes, was long accepted as fact.

McLaird all but apologizes for writing a book whose somewhat piecemeal narrative (chunks of Canary's story are lost to history) is further fractured by the rebuttals necessary to defending its accuracy. No family records survive, and her 1896 autobiography was propaganda. "Sadly," McLaird notes in his introduction, "after romantic adventures are removed, her story is mostly an account of uneventful daily life interrupted by drinking binges." But the myth-making (much of which Canary orchestrated herself through newspaper interviews) is as interesting as the myth, and through the host of colorful quotes McLaird has unearthed both by and about her, Canary emerges as a character worth mythologizing. (If only McLaird weren't so resistant to paraphrasing: In some passages, the book reads like a Zagat's restaurant guide, with multiple partial quotes crammed into one chop suey sentence after another.)

Born in Mercer County, Mo., in 1856, Canary was the oldest of some unknown number of siblings. Her father was a farmer; her mother was, by one account, an illiterate prostitute whose husband, taken by her beauty, tried to reform her, and failed. After some legal wrangling over land, the family sold their property and left Missouri in the early 1860s, heading for Montana gold. But they fell on hard times; her mother died in a mining camp in Blackfoot City, Mont., when Canary was about 9. After taking the children to Salt Lake City, her father died soon after.

Canary was presumably taken in by an adoptive family, but by the time she was 14 or 15, she was on her own, working at a boarding house in Piedmont, Wyo., and dancing with soldiers at night, until the owner kicked her out for appearing at a party in a soldier's uniform at a time when women could be fined for wearing men's clothes. She followed freighting teams along the railroad, worked as a laundress, dance hall girl and prostitute or "camp follower," though she later claimed she spent her teens engaged in military campaigns against Indians in Wyoming. She was one of the first white women to enter the Black Hills of South Dakota -- but not as a soldier. One wagon train captain heading there from Cheyenne recalled seeing her, then 20, driving a team and wearing a buckskin suit. "The first place that attracted her attention," he said, "was a saloon, where she was soon made blind as a bat from looking through the bottom of a glass."

Scheduled Classes for Computers

8 a.m. - 9:15 a.m Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Gieringer COM051 (20) Using ProQuest database
presented by Ms. Brenna Corbit.

9:30am - 10:45am Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Gieringer COM051 (20) Using ProQuest database
presented by Ms. Brenna Corbit.

2 p.m. - 3:15 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Gieringer COM051 (20) Using ProQuest database
presented by Ms. Brenna Corbit.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : What gesture earned former US president Jimmy Carter the nickname Jimmy Cardigan? (from The Oxford Guide to the United States Government)

fireside chat A fireside chat is a Presidential address to the nation characterized by a warm, intimate, and informal tone. It is designed to build confidence in the President's policies. The tradition of the fireside chat was begun by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on March 12 , 1933, speaking to the nation by radio shortly after his inauguration, in the midst of the Great Depression.

He discussed the banking crisis, the bank holiday he had declared on March 6 and its results, and his plan to reopen banks the next day. Entitled “An Intimate Talk with the People of the United States on Banking,” it was delivered in plain English to ordinary people. As the humorist Will Rogers put it, Roosevelt took up the subject of banking and “made everyone understand it, even the bankers.” The talk was successful in preventing a run on deposits and restored stability to the banking system.

The term fireside chat was first used by a CBS radio executive to promote an audience for Roosevelt's second address. Roosevelt gave 30 such addresses throughout his Presidency. Many of the chats described the bills that Roosevelt had gotten Congress to pass to deal with the depression. Other chats offered lessons in democracy.

President Jimmy Carter gave a televised fireside chat in 1977, complete with roaring fire in the Oval Office, and wore a cardigan sweater instead of the customary suit. That gesture earned him the nickname Jimmy Cardigan.

See also Carter, Jimmy; Public opinion; Roosevelt, Franklin D.

Sources
Russell D. Biuhite and David W. Levy, eds., The Fireside Chats of Franklin D. Roosevelt (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991).


How to cite this entry:
"fireside chat" The Oxford Guide to the United States Government. John J. Patrick, Richard M. Pious, and Donald A. Ritchie. Oxford University Press, 2001. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 25 October 2011

Monday, October 24, 2011

Word of the Day

Word of the Day for Monday, October 24, 2011

anoesis \an-oh-EE-sis\, noun:

A state of mind consisting of pure sensation or emotion without cognitive content.

Normally, on my long-distance walks, anoesis descends within a few miles: the mental tape loop of infuriating resentments, or inane pop lyrics, or nonce phrases gives way to the greeny-beige noise of the outdoors.
-- Will Self, Psychogeography

Wiggy felt sudden release from all tension: exalted, drawn up in a freedom like dance. Then he was staring in stillness, for a moment in anoesis.
-- Richard Henderson, Chasing Charlie

Dictionary.com Word of the Day
http://www.dictionary.com/wordoftheday/

Scheduled Classes for Computers

1 p.m. - 2 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Mrs. Moyer ORI102 (26) Intro to Yocum PP presented by
Ms. Mary Ellen Heckman.

2 p.m. - 3 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Mr. Walentis COM121 (20) No instruction, reserve 12 computer.

Reserved Group Study Rooms

5 p.m. - 6 p.m. Tower Room Reserved
Where: Tower Room
Description: International Club meeting with Jill Melones, Amanda Donmoyer,
Dylan James, Deepthi Mannepuli, and Anushka Liyanage.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : In psychology what is the Moses illusion? (from A Dictionary of Psychology)

Moses illusion n. A cognitive illusion induced by a question such as: ‘How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the Ark?’ A substantial proportion of people (roughly 50 per cent) answer ‘two’ rather than ‘none’, and feel confident about their answer, even when they are given unlimited time to think about it, in spite of the fact that they know that it was Noah and not Moses who took animals on to the Ark.

The illusion depends primarily on the semantic similarity between the names Noah and Moses and possibly also on their phonological similarity (two syllables, similar stress patterns, the same vowel in the stressed syllable, and so on). It is not explained by the respondent mishearing the question, because people make Moses mistakes even after correctly reading the question aloud, nor is it explained by the misdirection created by the words ‘how many’, because the illusion persists, though it is slightly reduced, when respondents are asked to respond ‘True’ or ‘False’ to the statement: ‘Moses took two animals of each kind on the Ark’.

The illusion was first reported in an article by the US psychologists Thomas D(avid) Erickson (born 1956) and Mark E(dward) Mattson (born 1957) in the Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior in 1981. Compare yolk phenomenon. [Named after Moses, the Hebrew prophet who, according to the Old Testament, led the Israelites out of Egypt to the Promised Land and handed down laws revealed to him by God]


How to cite this entry:
"Moses illusion n." A Dictionary of Psychology. Edited by Andrew M. Colman. Oxford University Press 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 24 October 2011

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Word of the Day

Word of the Day for Sunday, October 23, 2011

ferly
\FER-lee\, noun:

1. Something unusual, strange, or causing wonder or terror.
2. Astonishment; wonder.

adjective:
1. Unexpected; strange; unusual.

I had had half a thought, at the outset, of telling him about the ferly, my glimpse of the palace. But I couldn't bring myself to it.
-- Clive Staples Lewis and Fritz Eichenberg, Till We Have Faces: A Myth Retold.

Lord, ye'll have all the folk staring as if we were some ferly.
-- Margaret Oliphant, Kirsteen

Ferly is derived from Old English fǣrlīc meaning fǣr (fear) and -līc (-ly). It was related to the Germangefährlich meaning dangerous.

Dictionary.com Word of the Day
http://www.dictionary.com/wordoftheday/

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : How long after meeting Albert did Queen Victoria propose marriage? (from A Dictionary of British History)


Victoria ( 1819 – 1901 ), queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland ( 1837 – 1901 ) and empress of India ( 1877 – 1901 ). Victoria would have agreed that her life fell into three parts—before Albert , with Albert, after Albert. The death in childbirth in November 1817 of Princess Charlotte , only daughter and heir to the prince regent, prompted a famous ‘rush to the altar’. The duke of Cambridge married in May 1818 .

His elder brothers, the dukes of Clarence and Kent, were married in a joint ceremony a month later. Clarence's two daughters died as infants, leaving the probable succession to the duke of Kent's daughter the Princess Victoria, born 18 May 1819 , christened Alexandrina, and known at first as ‘Drina’. Eight months later her father was dead, taken off by pneumonia in winter at Sidmouth, leaving her to be brought up in a household almost totally female and totally German.

Her mother, Princess Victoria of Leiningen, was of the house of Saxe‐Coburg: recently arrived in England, she found the language difficult. The other person in constant attendance was Fräulein Lehzen, brought over as governess and companion from Hanover when the princess was 6 months old. They lived at Kensington palace, Victoria sleeping in her mother's room until she came to the throne. The centre of the princess's life was her 132 dolls, given imposing names and elaborate costumes.

Victoria grew up intelligent and self‐possessed. Her upbringing, though sheltered, endowed her with an artlessness and directness—a lack of introspection—which is rare, and never left her. Inevitably the duchess of Kent was on bad terms with George IV and even worse with his successor William IV , to whose demise she looked forward with ill‐concealed relish. A clash over precedence meant that the duchess and the young princess boycotted William's coronation in 1831 , the princess writing that not even her dolls could console her.

‘I longed sadly for some gaiety’, she wrote to her uncle Leopold at 16, ‘but we have been for the last three months immured within our old palace.’ As news of the gravity of King William's illness emerged in 1837 she wrote to Leopold: ‘I look forward to the event which it seems is likely to occur soon with calm and quietness: I am not alarmed at it.’ At her first council, Charles Greville wrote that ‘she appeared to be awed, but not daunted’.

Victoria's education for life started with her first prime minister Melbourne , whom she liked from their first audience, and who stood for father‐figure and first love. His kind and pleasant manner, mellow and relaxed, eased her into her new duties: after five days she wrote to Leopold, ‘I do regular, hard, but to me delightful work.’ Greville wrote, not unkindly, in 1839 when the queen's affection for Melbourne had dragged her into the Bedchamber crisis , ‘Melbourne is everything to her…her feelings are sexual, though she does not know it.’

She told Melbourne that she might not marry at all: ‘I don't know about that,’ replied Melbourne, sensibly. In October 1839 Leopold played his trump card, sending Victoria's cousin Albert over from Saxe‐Coburg on approval. In the event, one look was enough. ‘It was with some emotion that I beheld Albert,’ she wrote, ‘who is beautiful…so excessively handsome.’ Two days later, even disconcerting the urbane Melbourne, she declared that no time should be lost, and the following day she sent for Albert to propose marriage. The second phase of her life had begun.

Victoria took to matrimony con brio. ‘We did not sleep much,’ she confided to her journal after the wedding night. Then, to her dismay, within six weeks there were signs of pregnancy. Victoria was quite unsentimental about babies—‘nasty objects’—but after the birth of the princess royal in November 1840 , eight more arrived in rapid succession.

Her life became a strange juxtaposition of public and private. April 1841 found her with Princess Victoria 6 months old and at war with China: ‘Albert is so much amused at my having got the Island of Hong Kong, and we think Victoria ought to be called Princess of Hong Kong in addition to Princess Royal.’ Albert's influence grew with the years, particularly after the success of the Great Exhibition in 1851 , and in 1857 Victoria gave him the unprecedented title of prince consort. But pressure of work and his own sense of duty took its toll. In December 1861 , he caught typhoid and died at the age of 42.

Victoria faced a widowhood of 40 years. To some, even in her own day, her grief seemed excessive. There was a touch of morbidness and some gestures were repeated when the estimable John Brown , her Scottish manservant, died in 1883 . For several years, her disappearance from public life was total. But slowly the family took over as it grew inexorably—such ‘swarms of children’, wrote Victoria without enthusiasm.

Life became a welter of match‐making, weddings, christenings, teething, mumps, visits, and birthdays (remembered or missed)—and, the penalty of advancing years, of deaths. Disraeli , once detested for his unkindness to Sir Robert Peel , long a dear friend, died in 1881 , ‘the Queen bowed down with this misfortune’. In 1892 a terrible shock when ‘Eddy’, the prince of Wales's eldest son, succumbed to pneumonia at Sandringham. And gradually the courts and thrones of Europe filled up with Victoria's relatives and descendants. The tiny lady in the wheelchair was ‘the matriarch of Europe’.

Her political influence as queen has been much debated and analysed, but the more extravagant claims should not be entertained. The two politicians she most distrusted were Palmerston (‘Pilgerstein’) and Gladstone (‘half‐crazy’), but this did not stop the former being prime minister for nearly ten years and dying in office at the age of 81, nor the latter being prime minister on four occasions. Her importance lies in her role, with Albert, in restoring the dignity and reputation of the monarchy. Victoria's standing rose with the years, and she enjoyed memorable triumphs at her Golden and Diamond Jubilees in 1887 and 1897 . Much of it, of course, was illusion.

The queen mother and empress was a tiny, fat old lady, painfully short‐sighted, gobbling her food and eating too much. But nobody took liberties. The ribald jokes about John Brown had bounced off her. Though the queen herself did not fit the stereotype of ‘Victorian England’ (she never quite got over the dislike she had taken to bishops as a toddler), the phrase took hold so firmly that one wonders how other countries manage without the adjective. She remained to the end a mass of contradictions—self‐centred yet considerate and dutiful; homely yet grand; excitable and passionate but with shrewd judgement. She died at Osborne on 23 January 1901 and was buried alongside Albert in the mausoleum at Frogmore.

How to cite this entry:
" Victoria " A Dictionary of British History. Ed. John Cannon. Oxford University Press, 2009. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 23 October 2011

Saturday, October 22, 2011

Reserved Group Study Rooms

11 a.m. - 2 p.m. Yocum 103 reserved
Where: Yocum 103
Description: Study Group with Karen Bowers and other Chemistry students.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : Which global manufacturer and retailer of sports shoes was originally called Blue Ribbon Sports? (from A Dictionary of Sports Studies)

Nike The leading manufacturer and retailer of athletics sports shoes, or trainers, in the world, with a workforce of more than thirty thousand and a revenue exceeding $US18.6 billion in the fiscal year ending in March 2008. Originally called Blue Ribbon Sports, the company was established in 1964 in Oregon, USA, by athletics coach Bill Bowerman, and University of Oregon athlete Phil Knight. Initially a small-scale retail operation, and a distributor for manufacturers, the company moved into manufacture and design in the early 1970s, launching a football/soccer boot with the name of ‘Nike’ in 1971, named after the Greek god of victory, and running shoes with the name and the Swoosh logo the following year.

The Swoosh logo, a cross between florid signature and giant tick, branded a product that became increasingly popular in the Californian running market. Their experiments in running shoe design produced, in 1974, what became known as The Waffle, a trainer/shoe with an outsole that could better grip the running track; Bowerman reports that this evolved from him pouring liquid urethane into his wife's waffle iron, in their kitchen one Sunday morning.In 1978 the company renamed itself Nike, Inc. and by 1980 it had captured half of the USA's market for athletics shoes. Bill Bowerman had established jogging classes in the later 1960s, and Nike capitalized on the running and jogging boom of the 1970s.

It quickly moved into other sports, signing histrionic Romanian tennis player Ilie Nastase in 1972 on a US$5,000 contract, for which he wore Nike shoes emblazoned with ‘Nasty’ on the heel; his doubles partner, USA's Jimmy Connors, sported his nickname ‘Jimbo’ on his heels for no fee at all. Nastase was signed by Adidas the following year, but Nike continued to expand by contracting—and in some cases creating—global superstars, most notably, in the 1980s, basketball player Michael Jordan, and, in the 1990s, golfer Tiger Woods.

German giant Adidas was dismissive of what was brushed aside as a Californian gimmick, but its own erratic supply lines to US distributors allowed Nike to establish deals with retailers that allowed reinvestment in Asian manufacturing suppliers at little risk. In 1978 Adidas's Horst Dassler, alerted by senior colleagues to the growing threat from Nike, met Nike's Phil Knight and other Nike executives at a trade show in Houston, USA. Dassler revealed to his rivals that a good sale for an Adidas shoe was 100,000 pairs per year in the USA; Blue Ribbon Sports, on the verge of its renaming, was selling as many pairs of its Waffle trainers each month.

Nike's growth continued unabated. Adidas saw its US share collapse, and Nike—adding advertising (the first national ones during the 1982 New York Marathon) and the award-winning slogan ‘Just do it’ (1988) to its ‘word-of-foot’ marketing strategy—and the other emerging market leader, Reebok, became the new giants of the sports-shoe business.

Nike has sustained its global profile by acquiring other businesses such as Converse, Inc., specialized US basketball brand (2003), and Umbro, manufacturers of the England football team's kit (2008). It has been accused of the violation of human rights in its commissioning practices with contract factories in poorer countries in Asia, but denies malpractice, and where abuses have been identified, has pledged to take corrective action.

The Nike brand has been constantly refreshed by staying in touch with emerging and new markets such as skateboarding, or established markets with new levels of exposure. Nike, paying US$43 million, outbid Adidas and Puma to sponsor India's national cricketing side from 2006 to 2010. The company has teamed with Apple Inc. to devise ways of combining iPod software with in-shoe radio technology, as a means of monitoring a runner's performance. It has continued to contract leading world sport stars—cyclist Lance Armstrong, tennis player Roger Federer—as a means of consolidating its global profile.

The company's flagship stores, Niketown, in the world's major cities, show the fusion of fashion, sport, and branding in its most advanced consumerist form. http://www.nike.com/ The site of the sport shoes and clothing company, with specialist pitches to the world's major participation sports, basketball and football, and to constituencies such as women.

How to cite this entry:"Nike" A Dictionary of Sports Studies. by Alan Tomlinson. Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 22 October 2011

Friday, October 21, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

12 p.m. - 1 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Sarah Grace, Basic Writing 1, Com041, Finding & Evaluating Internet
Sources presented by Ms. Brenna Corbit

1 p.m. - 2 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Sarah Grace, Basic Writing 1, Com0

Reserved Group Study Rooms

12 p.m. - 3 p.m. Tower Room reserved
Where: Tower Room
Description: Study Group with Samantha Rambo, Kery Yoder, Antoine Lewis, Ricardo
Rimpel.

12 p.m. - 3 p.m. Yocum 103 Reserved
Where: Yocum 103
Description: Study Group with Gina Aldi, Trisha Lasher & Steve Iluliano

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : What is a bullroarer? (from The Oxford Companion to Music)


"bullroarer" [thunderstick, whizzer] (Fr.: rhombe, planchette ronflante; Ger.: Schwirrholz). A wooden blade with a hole through which a cord is tied, swung round the player's head so that the blade spins with a sound like that of a roaring bull or thunder. Used worldwide from earliest times as a ritual instrument, often representing an ancestral or spirit voice, it has been adopted latterly in many areas as a noise-maker to protect crops and has now become a child's plaything, so embodying the classic cycle of ritual, tool, and toy.

Jeremy Montagu

How to cite this entry:
Jeremy Montagu "bullroarer" The Oxford Companion to Music. Ed. Alison Latham. Oxford University Press, 2002. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 21 October 2011

Thursday, October 20, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

11 a.m. - 12 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Mrs. Moyer ORI102 (26) Intro to Library PowerPoint presented by
Ms. Brenna Corbit.

12:30 p.m. - 1:45 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Faller ORI102 (30) Intro to Library PP presented by
Ms. Brenna Corbit.

7 p.m. - 8 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Mandi Kimmage ABE Adult Basic Ed (16) Intro to Yocum PowerPoint presented by Ms. Patricia Nouhra.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : What was the Stavisky scandal (1934)? (from A Dictionary of Contemporary World History)


"Stavisky Scandal" (1934) During 1933 Serge Stavisky, a naturalized Frenchman from Russia, floated forged bonds on the Paris Bourse (stock exchange). When the police finally came to arrest him on 8 January 1934, he committed suicide. Enquiries into the delay in prosecuting him found that he had been backed and protected by a number of parliamentary Deputies and Ministers of the Third Republic.

An official of the Public Prosecutor's Office was found murdered, which added to the charge of cover‐up. Amid the sense of economic and social crisis pervading at the time, Action Française and other right‐wing groups exploited the incident to the utmost by suggesting that it showed not just the incompetence, but also the corruptness of the current French political system.

In a series of demonstrations, the most violent was on 6 February 1934, when fourteen people were killed and over 230 wounded. Prime Minister Daladier, himself appointed to handle the crisis a few weeks earlier, resigned. It took a ‘government of national unity’, under the veteran President Doumergue, to pacify the country again. For the right, the scandal became a potent example of the failure of the Republican political system. To the left, it signalled an imminent takeover by Fascism, as had happened recently in Italy and Germany. This fear was exaggerated, but nevertheless became the catalyst for the formation of the Popular Front.


How to cite this entry:
"Stavisky Scandal" A Dictionary of Contemporary World History. Jan Palmowski. Oxford University Press, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 20 October 2011

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

10 a.m. - 11 a.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Adams Intro to Drama (20) Using Literature databases presented by
Ms. Brenna Corbit.

6 p.m. - 7:15 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Waters-Brzezicki ORI102 (28) Library PowerPoint Tour presented by
Ms. Patricia Nouhra.

7:15 p.m. - 8:15 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Tammy Field GED (12) Intro to Yocum PowerPoint presented
by Ms.Patricia Nouhra.

Reserved Group Study Rooms

12 p.m. - 3 p.m. Tower Room reserved
Where: Tower Room
Description: Study Group with Samantha Rambo, Kery Yoder, Antoine Lewis,
Ricardo Rimpel.

Mystery Books Discussion Group

Mystery Lovers Unite! ....Let's meet secretly ... and conspire together
..... at the Cafe Chat Noir located through the secret door at the rear of the Muhlenberg Community Library!

Come "armed" with the names of your favorite writers to share, and let's all relish the devious pleasures of suspense and "murder most foul" as we seek the hidden clues together!

Plunge into the depths of stealth where murder and mayhem cross with revenge, dark plots, and alibis!

Be ready to traverse the Victorian gaslit streets of Holmes and Watson ... glimpse Mr. Poe's pesky black cat, ride the Orient Express... and follow along to the modern thrillers, where WHY-dunnit is often more important than WHO-dunnit. Nothing's more fun than a great mystery!

Mystery Books Discussion Group
3612 Kutztown Road Laureldale
610-929-0589
4th Tuesday
of every month
5:30-6:30pm
starting Oct. 25
No sign-up needed!

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : How many soldiers took part in the Long March, which began on this day in 1934? (from A Dictionary of Contemporary World History )


"Long March" (Oct. 1934–Oct. 1935) A march begun on 19 October 1934 by some 100,000 Communist Red Army soldiers from the Jianxi Soviet, in a successful effort to break out of Chiang Kai-shek's army's suffocating fifth encirclement. After a series of military set-backs, the military leadership passed to Mao Zedong on 8 January 1935.

While the 4th Army broke away from his leadership to march to Sichuan in the south, Mao shifted the emphasis of a revolution to the countryside, and decided to lead his men to the little-populated northern area of Shaanxi. Despite constant harassment and attack by Guomindang forces, and difficult terrain along the way, he arrived with around 6,000 men in Yan'an, having covered around 6,000 miles (9,600 km) in the year. He was later joined by other groups, including remnants of the severely reduced 4th Army, so that, in all, around 30,000 survived the epic journey.


How to cite this entry:
"Long March" A Dictionary of Contemporary World History. Jan Palmowski. Oxford University Press, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 19 October 2011

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

7:30 p.m. - 8:45 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Waters Brzezicki ORI102 (28) Library Tour PowerPoint presented by Ms. Patricia Nouhra

Mystery Books Discussion Group

Mystery Lovers Unite! ....Let's meet secretly ... and conspire together
..... at the Cafe Chat Noir located through the secret door at the rear of the Muhlenberg Community Library!

Come "armed" with the names of your favorite writers to share, and let's all relish the devious pleasures of suspense and "murder most foul" as we seek the hidden clues together!

Plunge into the depths of stealth where murder and mayhem cross with revenge, dark plots, and alibis!

Be ready to traverse the Victorian gaslit streets of Holmes and Watson ... glimpse Mr. Poe's pesky black cat, ride the Orient Express... and follow along to the modern thrillers, where WHY-dunnit is often more important than WHO-dunnit. Nothing's more fun than a great mystery!

Mystery Books Discussion Group
3612 Kutztown Road Laureldale
610-929-0589
4th Tuesday
of every month
5:30-6:30pm
starting Oct. 25
No sign-up needed!

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : In philosophy what is a hermeneutic circle? (from The Oxford Companion to Philosophy)


"hermeneutic circle." Term often used by philosophers in the (mainly continental) tradition running from Schleiermacher and Dilthey to Heidegger , Gadamer , and Ricœur Has to do with the inherent circularity of all understanding, or the fact that comprehension can only come about through a tacit foreknowledge that alerts us to salient features of the text which would otherwise escape notice.

Yet it is also the case that every text (and every reading of it) in some way manages to pass beyond the ‘horizon of intelligibility’ that makes up this background of foregone interpretative assumptions. The debate is joined between those (like Gadamer) who think of understanding in terms of a dialogue or ongoing cultural conversation, and those—Habermas among them —who wish to maintain a more independent role for the exercise of critical thought.

Prof. Christopher Norris
See also hermeneutics.


Bibliography
D. C. Hoy , The Critical Circle: Literature and History in Contemporary Hermeneutics (Berkeley, Calif., 1978 ).


How to cite this entry:
Prof. Christopher Norris "hermeneutic circle" The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford University Press 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 18 October 2011

Monday, October 17, 2011

Reserved Group Study Rooms

2 p.m. - 4 p.m. Yocum 103 Reserved
Where: Yocum 103
Description: Mr. David Leight's meeting.

5.p.m - 6 p.m. Tower Room Reserved
Where: Tower Room
Description: International Club meeting with Jill Melones, Amanda Donmoyer,
Dylan James, Deepthi Mannepuli, and Anushka Liyanage.

Sunday, October 16, 2011

Interlibrary Loans Originated by The Yocum Library


An interlibrary loan (ILL) is a request for a cataloged item that is owned by a library outside of The Yocum Library or the Advanced Library Information Network (ALIN) of Berks County. A request for a cataloged item that is available through the ALIN network is an intralibrary loan request and is processed using the ALIN “Hold” procedure although a request for a periodical article that is available within the ALIN network is considered an interlibrary loan..

The Yocum Library's mission provides the foundation for its provision of interlibrary loan services. Due to the high costs involved in the interlibrary loan process, this service is provided only to members of the RACC community – RACC students, staff, faculty, trustees, and alumni. Other library patrons should be referred to their public, college, or corporate libraries to obtain interlibrary loan services.

Members of the RACC community who are eligible for interlibrary loan services must have current library cards and no blocks, fines, charges, or overdue items on their library accounts. A library patron, who does not pick up an interlibrary loan item after notification of its receipt by The Yocum Library, will have a message placed on his/her library account; three or more such messages will block the patron from making more interlibrary loan requests from The Yocum Library. The Yocum Library reserves the right to deny interlibrary loan services to anyone who has not complied with the interlibrary loan guidelines and procedures in the past.

Because of the delay involved in obtaining interlibrary loan materials, an interlibrary loan request should be the product of a session with a librarian, so that the patron is first provided with as much information as possible from The Yocum Librarys resources.

The Yocum Library reserves the right to refuse a request which violates local, state, or federal laws, such as, but not limited to, copyright violations.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : How long did it take Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine chapel? (from The Oxford Companion to Western Art)


"Michelangelo Buonarroti" (1475–1564). Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet, one of the greatest figures of the Renaissance and, in his later years, one of the forces that shaped Mannerism. He was born on 6 March 1475 at Caprese, near Sansepolcro, where his father was podestà. Michelangelo's father was a member of the minor Florentine nobility and throughout his life Michelangelo was touchy on the subject; it may have been pride of birth that caused the opposition to his apprenticeship as a painter and Michelangelo's own insistence in later life on the status of painting and sculpture among the liberal arts. Certainly his own career was one of the prime causes of the far-reaching change in public esteem and social rating of the visual arts.

He was formally apprenticed to Domenico Ghirlandaio for a term of three years on 1 April 1488 and from him he must have learnt the elements of fresco technique, since the Ghirlandaio workshop was then engaged on the great fresco cycle in the choir of S. Maria Novella, Florence. He could not have learnt very much else, however, since he seems to have transferred very quickly to the school set up in the Medici gardens and run by Bertoldo di Giovanni. More important than either master was what he learned from the drawings he made of figures in the frescoes of his true masters, Giotto and Masaccio.

His work in the Medici gardens soon brought him to the notice of Lorenzo the Magnificent himself and one of Michelangelo's earliest works, the Centaurs relief (Florence, Bargello) may have been made for Lorenzo and left unfinished because of his death on 8 April 1492. After the death of Lorenzo the political situation in Florence deteriorated, first with Savanarola's oppressive theocracy and then with his judicial murder (1498).

In October 1494 Michelangelo left Florence for Bologna, where he carved two small figures and an angel for the tomb of S. Dominic. On 25 June 1496 he was in Rome, where he remained for the next five years and where he carved the two statues which established his fame—the Bacchus (Florence, Bargello) and the Pietà (Rome, S. Peter's). The latter, his only signed work, was commissioned in 1497 (the contract is dated 27 August 1498) and completed about the turn of the century. It is completely finished and highly polished and is in fact the consummation of all that the Florentine sculptors of the 15th century had sought to achieve—a tragically expressive and yet beautiful and harmonious solution to the problem of representing a full-grown man lying dead on the lap of a woman.

There are no marks of suffering—as were common in northern representations of the period—and the Virgin herself is young and beautiful. There is a story that objection was taken to the fact that the Virgin seemed too young to be the mother of the dead Christ, and Michelangelo countered this by observing that sin was what caused people to age and therefore the Immaculate Virgin would not show her age as ordinary people would.

The story is told by Michelangelo's pupil and biographer Condivi and is therefore presumably true in essentials. No other living artist except Leonardo da Vinci would have thought out the implications of his subject and linked the desire to achieve the utmost physical beauty and the maximum technical virtuosity with so considered an interpretation of the Christian mystery.

Still in his twenties, Michelangelo returned to Florence in 1501 to consolidate the reputation he had made in Rome. He remained there until the spring of 1505, the major work of the period being the David (1501–4; Florence, Accademia), which has become a symbol of Florence and Florentine art. The nude youth of gigantic size (approx. 6 m/18 ft high) expresses in concrete visual form the self-confidence of the new Republic. It is really a relief although actually carved in the round. It displays complete mastery of human anatomy, and it is taut with imminent action and latent energy.

Saturday, October 15, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

10 a.m. - 11 a.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Gieringer COM131 (20) Using Literature databases presented by Ms. Maryann Kruglinski.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : Which American singer and actress said: "It costs a lot of money to look this cheap"? (from The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations )

Parton, Dolly 1946–
American singer and actress

1. It costs a lot of money to look this cheap.
attributed, perhaps apocryphal


How to cite this entry:
"Parton, Dolly" The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations. Ed. Elizabeth Knowles. Oxford University Press, 2008. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 15 October 2011

Friday, October 14, 2011

From the Desk of Kim Stahler - Book Review

I Know I Am But What Are You
By Samantha Bee
Gallery Books, 2010
Reviewed by Kim Stahler

Samantha Bee is most recently known for being pregnant constantly on The Daily Show. I wish she was on more often, because she has great timing and a caustic wit that pairs well with her sweetly innocent face. I once saw her in Manhattan, in line at the NBC store, of all places. No one was bothering her, so I decided to by yelling across the long line how much I enjoyed her edgy humor on the show. She responded kindly and said she was embarrassed to be seen buying a Friends mug -- for a friend. Right, Samantha!

I was delighted to hear that she had a book coming out, and now I hope she will write more. If you want to find out about how she feels about working on the show, read her interviews, because this is about her Canadian Gen-X childhood. I can't believe she mentioned "footies" and many other Gen-X oddities. She has had some truly bizarre experiences, and she is very self-effacing at skewering her own cluelessness, arrogance, and nerdiness as a teenager. I love it when a book makes me laugh out loud; this one did.

The chapters are all separate tales. The one I enjoyed the most told of her housemate and her competing for the attention of a handsome but unwashed new tenant they took in. I'd love to hear more about her relationship with her (JFK Jr-looking) husband Jason Jones, also on The Daily Show, and the story of how they met is both humiliating and well told. The description of her beloved grandmother is also excellent.
People will compare her to David Sedaris (whom I adore) and Chelsea Handler (eh), but you can also put this book in the same category as Laurie Notaro of The Idiot Girls' Action Adventure Club.

First published on the blog 7/29/2010

Reserved Group Study Rooms

12 p.m. - 3 p.m Tower Room reserved
Where: Tower Room
Description: Study Group with Samantha Rambo, Kery Yoder, Antoine Lewis, Ricardo
Rimpel.

12 p.m. - 3 p.m. Yocum 103 Reserved
Where: Yocum 103
Description: Study Group with Gina Aldi, Trisha Lasher & Steve Iluliano

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : In legal terms what does 'obiter dicta' mean? (from The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia)

"Obiter dicta" —obiter meaning ‘by the way’, and a dictum being something that is said—are observations made by judges, in the course of their judgments, which are not essential to the immediate decision but may nevertheless be influential as expressions of judicial opinion. The contrast is with the ratio decidendi of a case (the ‘reason for deciding’), which refers to the proposition or propositions of law explicitly or implicitly relied upon as the basis for decision. Under the doctrine of precedent, a court must follow the ratio decidendi of an earlier decision by which it is bound, but is free to reject its obiter dicta or to treat them as merely persuasive.

Whether a statement is ratio or obiter is often itself debatable. The basic principle, as expressed by Stephen and Jacobs in Li Chia Hsing v Rankin (1978), is that ‘anything which is said … beyond what is strictly necessary for a decision on the particular facts is necessarily obiter dicta’. By contrast, in R v Cook; Ex parte C (1985), Gibbs insisted that comments in In the Marriage of Cormick (1984) were ‘a necessary part of the reasoning leading to the conclusion’, and were therefore not merely obiter.

Even if it is clearly obiter, any explicit expression of judicial opinion should be considered once the issue arises for decision. In Johnson v The Queen (1976), when the Court decided that the onus of proof of provocation as a criminal defence rested wholly on the accused, contrary dicta in Parker v The Queen, in both the High Court (1963) and the Privy Council (1964), were rejected.

Gibbs rejected them only ‘after the most anxious consideration’, observing: ‘We are not bound by an expression of opinion in the Judicial Committee which is merely obiter, although we should of course give the greatest weight to any considered dictum of the Board’. In De Jesus v The Queen (1986), the failure of the trial judge and the WA Court of Appeal to consider some obiter observations in Sutton v The Queen (1984) was for Dawson a sufficient reason to grant special leave to appeal.

A court may sometimes think it appropriate to expatiate on questions that strictly do not arise for decision. The result may be an obiter dictum of a peculiarly authoritative kind. For example, the appeal to the Privy Council in the Bank Nationalisation Case (1949) was confined to the High Court's holding on section 92 of the Constitution (see Interstate trade and commerce); and the Privy Council declined jurisdiction lest it be drawn into other issues debarred to it as inter se questions.

Yet their Lordships thought it ‘right to state their views’ on the section 92 question, and did so in a massive and profoundly influential obiter dictum. Five years later, when their Lordships determined in Hughes & Vale v NSW (1954) that section 92 protected interstate road transport, the states were in turmoil. In Hughes & Vale v NSW (No 2) (1955), an initial attempt by NSW to devise a licensing and taxing system compatible with section 92 was held to be invalid.

But five judges then offered elaborate suggestions for a taxing strategy that might be permissible; and in Armstrong v Victoria (No 2) (1957), those suggestions were applied. Williams conceded that they were only obiter dicta, but thought that since ‘they were only expressed after careful consideration’ and because the states ‘were urgently in need of such guidance’, they should be accepted ‘as a correct statement of the law’. Even Kitto, who had disagreed with the earlier dicta, conceded that they were ‘considered pronoun cements’, and obediently ‘studied them with a desire to accept and apply any principle which I could see commanded the approval of a majority of the Court’.

Again, in Strickland v Rocla Concrete Pipes (1971), the High Court held that the intricate drafting of the Trade Practices Act 1965 (Cth) was unconstitutional. Yet the judgments were mainly devoted to showing that a differently drafted enactment would be valid under the corporations power (section 51(xx) of the Constitution). In a paradoxical example of overruling by obiter dictum, the contrary decision in Huddart Parker v Moorehead (1909) was rejected as no longer correct.

More recently, in Sykes v Cleary (1992), the Court held that the successful candidate in a by-election had been disqualified by section 44(iv) of the Constitution. That meant that a fresh election would be needed, in which the candidates who had not been elected were likely to stand again. Accordingly, the Court expressed its opinion that they, too, would be disqualified by a different provision in section 44.

In such cases, the obiter pronouncements are almost advisory opinions. At the least, the Court regards itself as having a kind of incidental power once it is seised of a matter.

By contrast, in the Waanyi Case (1996), where the Court had been expected to settle the controversial issue of whether the mere grant of a pastoral lease extinguished native title, the majority declined to do so. The ruling that the Native Title Tribunal had exceeded its powers by addressing that question was not only sufficient to dispose of the case, but had left the High Court with no jurisdictional footing from which to speak. Only Kirby, in dissent, thought an obiter answer to the question appropriate.

Some Justices are especially wary of obiter pronouncements on constitutional issues, maintaining that constitutional issues should not be reached at all if a non-constitutional ground is available, and even when reached, should be explored no further than the case requires. Brennan was a strong and consistent exponent of this approach. In Actors and Announcers Equity v Fontana Films (1982), he extolled

the practice of this Court in interpreting the Constitution case by case, deciding only so much as is necessary to decide the case in hand … Hewing close to the issues raised by each case, the Court avoids the possibility of having its judgment applied to issues which were not envisaged in the arguments before it.

Such an approach reflects an awareness that the influence of obiter dicta may sometimes be profound. The obiter remarks of Fullagar in Commonwealth v Bogle (1953) were frequently relied on as helping to explain the Cigamatic Case (1962), until Henderson's Case (1997) took a different view of Cigamatic, and dismissed them as merely obiter.

The inference drawn from Cooper v Stuart (1889) that the laws and entitlements of Aboriginal peoples had not survived European settlement was never more than obiter; yet, as Deane and Gaudron conceded in Mabo (1992), the accumulation of obiter dicta in that and other cases had acquired ‘formidable’ authority. When Isaacs excluded any effective guarantee of jury trial from section 80 of the Constitution (by saying in R v Bernasconi (1915) that ‘if a given offence is not made triable on indictment at all, then sec 80 does not apply’), and when Higgins said in R v Archdall and Roskruge (1928) that although section 80 requires a jury ‘if there be an indictment’, there is ‘nothing to compel procedure by indictment’, they were speaking obiter.

Yet, despite the formidable challenges by Dixon and Evatt in R v Federal Court of Bankruptcy; Ex parte Lowenstein (1938), and by Deane in Kingswell v The Queen (1985), the effect of their passing comments has been treated as settled law.

Thus, the Court has been ambivalent in its attitude to obiter dicta, sometimes treating them as authoritative and sometimes dismissing them as superfluous. The ambivalence is likely to continue, and underscores the breadth of the choices open to an appellate court in developing the law of the land.

Tony Blackshield

How to cite this entry:
Tony Blackshield "Obiter dicta" The Oxford Companion to the High Court of Australia. Michael Coper, Tony Blackshield, George Williams, Oxford University Press, 2007. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 14 October 2011

Thursday, October 13, 2011

Reserved Group Study Rooms

6 p.m. - 9 p.m. Tower Room reserved
Where: Tower Room
Description: RACC Meeting with Alexis Jardine Number Attending: 12

Scheduled Classes for Computers

9:30 a.m. - 10:45 a.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Wood COM051 (20) Using ProQuest database presented by
Ms. Kim Stahler.

11 a.m. - 12:15 p.m. Reserve
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Wood COM121 (20) Using ProQuest database presented by
Ms. Kim Stahler.

7 p.m. - 8 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Library Instruction Area
Description: Mr. Karl Greenich GED II Course Number: 806 (23)
Topic: ORI102 --
Introduction to The Yocum Library presented by Ms. Patricia Nouhra.

8 p.m. - 9 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Dr. Riccardi HUM271 Intro to Philosophy (14) No instruction --
reserve 12 computers.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : In which year did no. 10 Downing Street become the official residence of the British prime minister? (from A New Dictionary of Eponyms)

"Downing Street" No. 10 Downing Street has been the official residence of the prime minister since 1735, when George II gave it to Sir Horace Walpole to serve for that purpose. Downing Street is a street leading off Whitehall and a synonym for the British government. The street is named after Sir George Downing (1623–1684), who was both a parliamentarian and an ambassador, serving under Cromwell and then Charles II.

The son of a Puritan lawyer and the second graduate of Harvard College, he served in the military for a while during .the English Civil War and was a member of the Parliament during Cromwell's protectorate.

Downing was a selfish and treacherous person. He switched his politics, in 1660, to support the restoration of the Stuart monarchy. Under Charles II he became the ambassador to Holland, but his diplomatic intransigence caused the Second Dutch War.

In 1671 Downing was sent to Holland for the express purpose of fomenting another war, but his behavior there was so despicable, so abominable, that it infuriated the Dutch, and he had to flee for his life. No excuse, so far as Charles II was concerned! He had Downing imprisoned for deserting his post. After his release from confinement, however, he was given a high financial position, which he held for the rest of his days.


How to cite this entry:
"Downing Street" A New Dictionary of Eponyms. Morton S. Freeman. Oxford University Press, 1997. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 13 October 2011

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

9 a.m. - 10 a.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Mollica COM040 (18) No instruction -- reserve 12 computers.

10 a.m. - 12 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Mollica COM040 (18) No instruction -- reserve 12 computers.

12 p.m. - 1 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Mr. Fidler COM121 (20) Using the ProQuest Database presented by Ms. Kim
Stahler.

2 p.m. - 4:15 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Mollica COM040 (18) No instruction -- reserve 12 computers.

7:30 p.m. - 8:45 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Mr Uhrich COM121 (20) Reserve 12 instruction computers, no instruction.

Reserved Group Study Rooms

12 p.m. - 3 p.m. Tower Room reserved
Where: Tower Room
Description: Study Group with Samantha Rambo, Kery Yoder, Antoine Lewis, Ricardo Rimpel.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : In the art world, who were the Kitchen Sink School? (from A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art)

Kitchen Sink School

A group of British Social Realist painters active in the 1950s who specialized in drab working-class subjects, notably interior scenes and still-lifes of domestic clutter and debris; the term, not intended as a compliment, was coined by the critic David Sylvester in an article in the December 1954 issue of the journal Encounter. The main artists covered by the term were John Bratby, Derrick Greaves, Edward Middleditch, and Jack Smith, who were supported by Helen Lessore's Beaux Arts Gallery in London.

In 1956 they exhibited together at the Venice Biennale. By their choice of dour and sordid themes and their harsh aggressive style they were seen to express the same kind of dissatisfaction with the values of post-war British society as the ‘Angry Young Men’ in literature (writers such as John Osborne, whose Look Back in Anger was first produced in 1956, were sometimes referred to as ‘kitchen sink dramatists’).

Their principal critical supporter was the Marxist John Berger, although not all the painters had a strong political motivation. In the context of the Cold War, opponents of the school's brand of Social Realism were inclined to associate it with the Socialist Realism imposed as an artistic dogma in the Eastern bloc. From the late 1950s the painters of the Kitchen Sink School developed in different ways, Bratby, for example, emphasizing his Expressionist handling, and Smith eventually turning to abstraction, for which he was dismissed by the Beaux Arts Gallery. Berger denounced his former protégés.

The bad feelings aroused by the controversy over the painters' work, and especially its politicized interpretation, ran high for many years afterwards. In the catalogue of an exhibition held at the Graves Art Gallery, Sheffield, in 1984 entitled ‘The Forgotten Fifties’, which included the Kitchen Sink painters, the curator, Julian Spalding, commented that the research for the exhibition had meant ‘opening wounds’.

Jack Smith was initially particularly critical of the proposed exhibition, although he eventually contributed a statement of his own point of view on the subject to the catalogue, in which he denied that there had been any political agenda behind his work.

Peter Coker (1926–2004), a painter noted for thickly painted images of a butcher's shop, has also been associated with the tendency.


Bibliography
Further Reading
F. Spalding, The Kitchen Sink Painters (1990)


How to cite this entry:
"Kitchen Sink School" A Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art by Ian Chilvers and John Glaves-Smith. Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 12 October 2011

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

10 a.m. - 11 a.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Genealogy Workshop -- Understanding the Census presented by
Ms. Brenna Corbit.

2 p.m. - 3 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Genealogy Workshop -- Understanding the Census presented by
Ms. Brenna Corbit.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : In motor racing, where and when was the first Grand Prix race held? (from A Dictionary of Sports Studies)

"motor racing " A competition between land vehicles that are mechanically propelled and driven over closed-circuit tracks or on specified point-to-point routes. Separate timings are made in competitions where drivers race singly; where competitors race together, the winner is the first to finish the allocated distance, or number of laps of the circuit. Competition began almost as soon as the first petrol-driven car was invented, with timed trials in France in the later 1880s and the 1890s, and organized automobile races in Chicago and the East Coast of the USA in the 1890s.

Speed was the great attraction to competitor and spectator alike. In the USA, perhaps the most prominent single motor-racing event has been the Indianapolis 500-mile race, first held in 1911. In Europe, the first Grand Prix race was held in 1906 at Le Mans, France, won by the Renault company's vehicle, driven by its chief mechanic. Germany and Italy developed competitive vehicles and high profiles in the sport in the 1920s and 1930s, though British competitiveness was held back by its amateur ethos.

The European Grand Prix cycle of events was superseded by the Formula One competition in 1950, and consolidation and expansion of the sport in the television age guaranteed worldwide exposure, attracting competitors from Brazil and Argentina as well as the traditional European constituencies. The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), founded in 1904 in Paris, now with its administration in Geneva, Switzerland, oversees the sport. (As it stated on its website in 2009, it ‘brings together 221 national motoring and sporting organisations from 132 countries on five continents. Its member clubs represent over 100 million motorists and their families.’)

In 2008, a worldwide television viewing audience of 600 million was reported for Formula One, and despite the volatility of the global economy, the sport continues to attract manufacturers and sponsors.

The sport has been rife, in the early 20th century, with controversy concerning the business interests of FIA personnel and their partners, and the unethical and even corrupt practices that have been revealed in the racing events themselves: these have included industrial espionage between rival teams, and ploys such as deliberately crashing to hamper or disrupt the racing progress of other drivers.

Despite such dubious morals on the track and in the boardroom, Formula One's winning formula of speed, glamour, celebrity, and cosmopolitanism sustains the sport's global profile. See also hot rod; Le Mans; NASCAR; Senna (da Silva), Ayrton.


How to cite this entry:
"motor racing" A Dictionary of Sports Studies. by Alan Tomlinson. Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 11 October 2011

Monday, October 10, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

10 a.m. - 11a.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: ProQuest Faculty/Staff Training presented by Ms. Kim Stahler.

2 p.m. - 3 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: ProQuest Faculty/Staff Training presented by Ms. Kim Stahler.

Reserved Group Study Rooms

5 p.m. - 6 p.m. Tower Room Reserved
Where: Tower Room
Description: International Club meeting with Jill Melones, Amanda Donmoyer, Dylan
James, Deepthi Mannepuli, and Anushka Liyanage.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : What is a SWATH ship? (from The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea)

"SWATH" ship (Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull), a catamaran ship—though the technology is equally applicable to a trimaran hull—which is shorter than a monohull or conventional catamaran of equal displacement tonnage. The basis of the design is twin underwater torpedo-shaped hulls to which are attached two or more streamlined struts. These pierce the water surface and are connected to a platform deck designed for cargo or passengers by means of what is known as the haunch.

It is usual for each submersed hull to have independent machinery. The advantage of this design is that a large proportion of the hull stays below the surface which reduces wave drag and increases stability, giving smaller vessels the steadiness associated with much larger ones. It is also more economical as less power is needed to climb the waves, and it can sustain higher speed in rough weather than a conventional vessel.

The theory of SWATH was developed by Dr Thomas G. L. Lang in the late 1960s, and the US Navy commissioned a SWATH ship in the 1970s which has proved successful. The technology is now being employed to build ferries and small cruise ships. SLICE (not an acronym) technology is now being developed, using underwater propulsion pods (see propeller), which allows SWATH ships higher speed through the water without sacrificing stability.SWATH International's Super-4000 Class Ferry



How to cite this entry:
"SWATH ship" The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. Ed. I. C. B. Dear and Peter Kemp. Oxford University Press, 2007. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 10 October 2011


Sunday, October 9, 2011

Day in History

Oct 9, 1547:
Miguel de Cervantes is baptized

On this day in 1547, Miguel de Cervantes is baptized in Alcala de Heraves, Spain, a university town near Madrid. Cervantes, the fourth son of a deaf apothecary, studied with Madrid humanist Juan Lopez before traveling to Rome, where he worked for a future cardinal in the late 1560s. He enlisted in the Spanish fleet to fight against the Turks, and his left hand was maimed at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. He was later stationed at Palermo and Naples.

While returning to Madrid in 1575, Cervantes was captured by Barbary pirates and held captive in Algiers. Cervantes was ransomed after five years of captivity and returned to Madrid, where he began writing. Although his records indicate he wrote 20 to 30 plays, only two survive. In 1585, he published a romance. During this time, he married a woman 18 years his junior and had an illegitimate daughter, whom he raised in his household. He worked as a tax collector and as a requisitioner of supplies for the navy, but was jailed for irregularities in his accounting. Some historians believe he conceived the idea for Don Quixote while in jail.

In 1604, Cervantes received license to print Don Quixote. Although the book began as a satire of chivalric epics, it was far more complex than a simple satire. The book blended traditional genres to create a sad portrait of a penniless man striving to live by the ideas of the past. The book was a huge success and brought Cervantes literary respect and position but did not generate much money. He wrote drama and short stories until a phony sequel to his first novel, penned by another writer, prompted him to write Don Quixote, Part II in 1615. He died the following year.
*http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/miguel-de-cervantes-is-baptized

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : Why was Charlie Chaplin banned from the USA in 1952? (from Who's Who in the Twentieth Century)

"Chaplin, Charlie ( Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin ; 1889 – 1977 )" British actor and director. A legendary figure in his own lifetime, he was knighted in 1975 . Born in London to music-hall parents, Charlie Chaplin and his brother Sydney were placed in an orphanage at a very early age. Becoming a vaudeville performer, he joined Fred Karno's company in 1906 .

On tour in the USA Chaplin was spotted by Mack Sennett , who signed him up for the Keystone Studio in 1913 . He made his film debut in Making a Living ( 1914 ) and introduced the famous seedy and soft-hearted gentleman-tramp routine, which became his hallmark. Numerous films for various studios brought him world fame, all based on his mastery of pathos and slapstick acrobatics.

As well as acting, Chaplin also wrote and directed and in 1919 co-founded United Artists with D. W. Griffith , Douglas Fairbanks , and Mary Pickford . In the twenties came some of his best feature films, including The Kid ( 1920 ) and The Gold Rush ( 1925 ). Reluctant to come to terms with sound, he merely added music and effects to City Lights ( 1931 ) and Modern Times ( 1936 ), with a minimum concession to dialogue in The Great Dictator ( 1940 ).

By the 1940s a silent film had a certain novelty value, but it failed to bring in the audiences, even though Chaplin was a household name throughout the world. The bowler-hatted tramp had had his day: Monsieur Verdoux ( 1947 ) never quite established Chaplin as a talkie star, although he was more successful with Limelight ( 1952 ).

In the late forties Chaplin came to the attention of the Un-American Activities Committee; despite his denials, in 1952 he was banned from the USA as a communist sympathizer. He settled in Switzerland with his fourth wife, Oona O'Neill ( 1926 – 91 ; daughter of Eugene O'Neill ) but in 1973 returned to the USA to receive his second special Academy Award (his first had been awarded in 1928 ). His third wife was the film actress Paulette Goddard ( 1911 – 90 ).


How to cite this entry:
"Chaplin, Charlie" Who's Who in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press, 1999. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 9 October 2011

Saturday, October 8, 2011

Reserved Group Study Rooms

11 a.m. - 2 p.m. Yocum 103 reserved
Where: Yocum 103
Description: Study Group with Karen Bowers and other Chemistry students.

The King and I

New to the Yocum Libray Collection.

Quotes,

King: When I sit, you sit. When I kneel, you kneel. Et cetera, et cetera, et cetera!

King: You will order the finest gold chopsticks.
Anne: Your Majesty, chopsticks? Don't you think knives and forks would be more suitable?
King: I make mistake, the British not scientific enough to know how to use chopsticks.

King: Pairs of male elephants to be released into the forests of America. There it is hoped that they will grow in number and the people can tame them and use them as beasts of burden.
Anne: But your majesty, I don't think you mean pairs of MALE elephants.

King: [chanting to Buddha before banquet preparations] Help also Mrs. Anna to keep awake for scientific sewing of dresses, even though she be only a woman and a Christian and therefore unworthy of your interest!
Anne: [greatly offended, rising] Your Majesty!
King: A promise is a promise! Head must not be higher than mine! A promise!

Louis: Mother, look! The Prime Minister is naked.
Anne: Oh don't be ridiculous, Louis. He can't be all naked. He's only [looks through the telescope]
Anne: ... half naked.

Credit for quotes, http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0049408/quotes

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : Of which famous tale is Jim Hawkins the narrator? (from The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature)

"Treasure Island," a romance by R. L. Stevenson, published in book form 1883.

The narrator is Jim Hawkins, whose mother keeps the Admiral Benbow inn somewhere on the coast in the west of England in the 18th cent. An old buccaneer takes up his quarters at the inn. He has in his chest information, in the shape of a manuscript map, as to the whereabouts of Capt. Flint's treasure.

Of this his former confederates are determined to obtain possession, and a body of them, led by the sinister blind pirate Pew, makes a descent on the inn. But Jim Hawkins outwits them, secures the map, and delivers it to Squire Trelawney. The squire and his friend Dr Livesey set off for Treasure Island in the schooner Hispaniola taking Jim with them. Some of the crew are the squire's faithful dependants, but the majority are old buccaneers recruited by Long John Silver.

Their design to seize the ship and kill the squire's party is discovered by Jim, and after a series of thrilling fights and adventures is completely thwarted; and the squire, with the help of the marooned pirate Ben Gunn, secures the treasure.


How to cite this entry:
"Treasure Island" The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature. Ed. Margaret Drabble and Jenny Stringer. Oxford university Press, 2007. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 8 October 2011

Friday, October 7, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

1 p.m. - 2 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Ms. Bean-Ritter ORI102 (25) Library Tour PowerPoint presented
by Ms. Patricia Nouhra.

Reserved Group Study Rooms

12 p.m. - 3 p.m. Tower Room reserved
Where: Tower Room
Description: Study Group with Samantha Rambo, Kery Yoder, Antoine Lewis,
Ricardo Rimpel.

12 p.m. - 3 p.m. Yocum 103 Reserved
Where: Yocum 103
Description: Study Group with Gina Aldi, Trisha Lasher & Steve Iluliano.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : What do solipsists believe? (from The Oxford Companion to Consciousness)

"solipsism "In the primary, metaphysical, sense of the term, the solipsist believes that only they and their experiences exist. The outer world of shoes, ships, sealing‐wax—not to mention other subjects of experience—has been replaced by an internal world consisting only of the self and its conscious states. The solipsistic perspective is eloquently captured in Sylvia Plath's poem ‘Soliloquy of the Solipsist’:
I?
I walk alone;
The midnight street
Spins itself from under my feet;
When my eyes are shut
These dreaming houses all snuff out;
Through a whim of mine
Over gables the moon's celestial onion
Hangs high.

Metaphysical solipsism is not widely held. (Indeed, there is a sense in which no two solipsists hold the same view, for each denies the other's existence!) Where it does occur, solipsism is a sign of psychiatric disorder rather than philosophical profundity.

Individuals with schizophrenia often cycle between nihilistic and solipsistic moods—when in the grip of nihilism they appear to have lost experiential contact with their very existence, whereas the solipsistic mood brings with it an all‐encompassing self that threatens to submerge any awareness of the world as standing over and against them (Parnas and Sass 2001).

Solipsism exerts an influence on consciousness studies in its methodological rather than its metaphysical guise. The methodological solipsist recommends that explanations of psychological states bracket the subject's environment (Fodor 1980). The methodological solipsist does not deny that the subject's environment has a causal influence on their conscious states and processes—how could it not?—she holds only that this causal influence is of no interest to the study of consciousness.

Methodological solipsism has not gone unchallenged, and externalists of various stripes argue that the sciences of the mind need to take the subject's environment into account. Some content externalists argue that one can have meaningful thoughts and experiences only in the context of a community of thinkers. Others argue that one can have thoughts and experiences about certain types of physical objects and properties only in environments that contain objects and properties of the relevant type.

(Roughly, one couldn't have thoughts about cats unless there were cats to think about.) Others—vehicle externalists—argue that the vehicles of conscious states extend out into the subject's environment. Whatever their brand, externalists argue that consciousness depends in constitutive—i.e. not merely causal—ways on factors that are external to the subject in question, and that the methodological solipsist's attempt to study experience by bracketing the external is doomed to defeat.

Although externalism has its proponents, it is at present not much more than a promissory note. Few studies of consciousness have made any serious attempt to take environmental variables into account, and the mainstream focus of consciousness science is resolutely ‘solipsistic’ in its focus on the search for the neural mechanisms underpinning consciousness.

Tim Bayne

Bibliography
Fodor, J. (1980). ‘Methodological solipsism considered as a research strategy in the cognitive sciences’ . Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3.
Parnas, J. and Sass, L. A. (2001). ‘Self, solipsism, and schizophrenic delusions’ . Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology, 8.
Plath, S. (1981). ‘ Soliloquy of the solipsist.’ In Collected Poems.


How to cite this entry:
Tim Bayne "solipsism" The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. by Tim Bayne, Axel Cleeremans and Patrick Wilken. Oxford University Press Inc. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 7 October 2011

Thursday, October 6, 2011

Scheduled Classes for Computers

7 p.m. - 8 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Mr. Ramsey GED (19) Intro to Yocum PP presented by Ms. Patricia Nouhra.

8 p.m. - 9 p.m. Reserved
Where: Yocum Instruction Area
Description: Dr. Riccardi HUN271 Intro to Philosophy (14) No instruction --
reserve 12 computers.

Fact of the Day

Fact of the Day : How old was the current Dalai Lama when he was enthroned at Lhasa? (from Who's Who in the Twentieth Century)


Dalai Lama ( Tenzin Gyatso ; 1935 – ) Tibetan Buddhist leader; spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet ( 1951 – 59 ). He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 , in recognition of his appeals for the nonviolent liberation of his homeland from Chinese rule. Born into a peasant family in Amdo province, Tenzin Gyatso was five when oracles proclaimed him the reincarnation of the thirteenth Dalai Lama, who had died in 1933.

He was enthroned at Lhasa in 1940 and ruled in his own right from 1950 . A year later the Chinese invaded Tibet; when the sixteen-year-old Dalai Lama's pleas were ignored by the UN, the UK, and India he had no choice but to sign an agreement in which Tibet became an ‘autonomous region’ of China and his own powers became largely notional.

In 1959 China's attempts to destroy the national and religious identity of Tibet provoked an uprising, quickly suppressed by the occupying forces. The Dalai Lama and most of his ministers fled to India, followed by thousands of refugees. Since his exile he has acted as a spokesman for the plight of his country and has written widely on Buddhism and his search for world peace.


How to cite this entry:
" Dalai Lama " Who's Who in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press, 1999. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. 6 October 2011